How to create or move a global catalog in Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000, or Small Business Server 2000

公司域控制器是Windows2000系统,虚拟化过程中遇到USN Rollback问题,根据此文解决,于是转载之。
原文链接:https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/313994

SUMMARY

This article explains how to create a new global catalog server. This may be necessary if you need additional global catalog servers (e.g. to support an Exchange 2000 roll out) or if you want to move the global catalog server role to a different domain controller.

There may be occasions when it is necessary to create a new global catalog to replace an existing one, or to add a new global catalog. Microsoft recommends the following method:

  1. Create a new global catalog on a second domain controller.
  2. Wait for the account and the schema information to replicate to the new global catalog. For single domains, this is relatively straightforward. For multiple domain networks, full replication will take additional time, depending on the complexity of the network. The new global catalog will be created by normal Active Directory (AD) replication and depending on the structure of your AD forest, this replication could take considerable time.
  3. Remove the global catalog from the original domain controller (optional).

By default, Windows 2000 will only place a Global catalog on the first Domain Controller in each AD forest.
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Using Ntdsutil.exe to transfer or seize FSMO roles to a domain controller

公司域控制器是Windows2000系统,虚拟化过程中遇到USN Rollback问题,根据此文解决,于是转载之。
原文链接:https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/255504

SUMMARY

This article describes how to use the Ntdsutil.exe utility to transfer or to seize Flexible Single Master Operations (FSMO) roles.

MORE INFORMATION

Certain domain and enterprise-wide operations that are not good for multi-master updates are performed by a single domain controller in an Active Directory domain or forest. The domain controllers that are assigned to perform these unique operations are called operations masters or FSMO role holders.

The following list describes the 5 unique FSMO roles in an Active Directory forest and the dependent operations that they perform:

  • Schema master - The Schema master role is forest-wide and there is one for each forest. This role is required to extend the schema of an Active Directory forest or to run the adprep /domainprep command.
  • Domain naming master - The Domain naming master role is forest-wide and there is one for each forest. This role is required to add or remove domains or application partitions to or from a forest.
  • RID master - The RID master role is domain-wide and there is one for each domain. This role is required to allocate the RID pool so that new or existing domain controllers can create user accounts, computer accounts or security groups.
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How to remove data in Active Directory after an unsuccessful domain controller demotion

公司域控制器是Windows2000系统,虚拟化过程中遇到USN Rollback问题,根据此文解决,于是转载之。
原文链接:https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/216498

SUMMARY

This article describes how to remove data in Active Directory after an unsuccessful domain controller demotion.

Warning If you use the ADSI Edit snap-in, the LDP utility, or any other LDAP version 3 client, and you incorrectly modify the attributes of Active Directory objects, you can cause serious problems. These problems may require you to reinstall Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server, Microsoft Exchange Server 2003, or both Windows and Exchange. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems that occur if you incorrectly modify Active Directory object attributes can be solved. Modify these attributes at your own risk.

The Active Directory Installation Wizard (Dcpromo.exe) is used for promoting a server to a domain controller and for demoting a domain controller to a member server (or to a stand-alone server in a workgroup if the domain controller is the last in the domain). As part of the demotion process, the wizard removes the configuration data for the domain controller from Active Directory. This data takes the form of an NTDS Settings object that exists as a child of the server object in Active Directory Sites and Services.

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Domain controllers do not demote gracefully when you use the Active Directory Installation Wizard to force demotion in Windows Server 2003 and in Windows 2000 Server

公司域控制器是Windows2000系统,虚拟化过程中遇到USN Rollback问题,根据此文解决,于是转载之。
原文链接:https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/332199

SYMPTOMS

Microsoft Windows 2000 or Microsoft Windows Server 2003 domain controllers may not gracefully demote by using the Active Directory Installation Wizard (Dcpromo.exe).

CAUSE

This behavior may occur if a required dependency or operation fails. These include network connectivity, name resolution, authentication, Active Directory directory service replication, or the location of a critical object in Active Directory.

RESOLUTION

To resolve this behavior, determine what is preventing the graceful demotion of the Windows 2000 or the Windows Server 2003 domain controller, and then try to demote the domain controller by using the Active Directory Installation Wizard again.

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How to detect and recover from a USN rollback in Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2008 R2

公司域控制器是Windows2000系统,虚拟化过程中遇到USN Rollback问题,根据此文解决,于是转载之。
原文链接:https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/875495

SUMMARY

This article describes a condition that occurs when a domain controller that is running Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, or Windows Server 2008 R2 starts from an Active Directory database that has been incorrectly restored or copied into place. This condition is known as an update sequence number rollback, or USN rollback.

When a USN rollback occurs, modifications to objects and attributes that occur on one domain controller do not replicate to other domain controllers in the forest. Because replication partners believe that they have an up-to-date copy of the Active Directory database, monitoring and troubleshooting tools such as Repadmin.exe do not report any replication errors.

After hotfix 875495 or Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 is installed, a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 domain controller logs Directory Services event 2095 when it encounters a USN rollback. The text of the event message directs administrators to this article to learn about recovery options.

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锐起无盘3.1图文教程

说起无盘xp,现在最为成熟的就是就是网众与锐起了,网众相对来说比较专业稳定些服务器主要集于linux,而锐起相对来说就简单地多.以前锐起的各种版本比如2050,2046等版本破解是相当的麻烦,如今好了有了锐起3.1安装和破解哪是相当的简单就像装普通软件一样一路NEXT,有需要的话可以点这里下载。

说在前面,什么是无盘网?无盘网也是局域网里的一种,顾名思义,就是不需要硬盘的网络,工作的运行都缘自于服务器上的镜像文件,由于系统共用一个镜像,所以维护比较简单,一更新都更新,别外由于省去了磁盘的成本,也节省了开支,当然工作站的最大硬件性能给了用户(因为无盘里自带还原就不用装杀毒软件),自然就感觉更快了.

网络环境,星型网络,服务器server2003(当然xp也是可以的),服务器的IP为192.168.3.200。首先确保服务器有可用空间的NTFS盘,先准备一个有盘有系统的xp工作站(确保此工作站和你的服务器在同工作组内,网也要通,最好删除网卡里的QOS)放在这里,接着安装锐起无盘服务端。安装非常的简单狂点下一步到最后,破解也随之完成。
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WordPress and dashes (m-dash & n-dash)

dashI got you there, I too didn’t know there were n and m dashes “–” and “—”.

Anyways, the process of using one of these in my life was something like this:

  1. Search Google for “mdash”
  2. Use my eye scanning techinque to find any dash which looks longer than usual
  3. CTRL-C, CTRL-V
  4. life goes on

Tired of this repetitive process, I decided to replace n/m dashe with hyphen (-), those looked unfamiliar and rather creepy ( -example-), so I changed my mind again and decided to use double hyphens (- -).
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Excel如何将两列的内容进行合并

根据需要,有时想把B列与C列的内容进行合并,如果行数较少,可以直接用“剪切”和“粘贴”来完成操作,但如果有几万行,就不能这样办了。

解决办法是:在C行后插入一个空列(如果D列没有内容,就直接在D列操作),在D1中输入“=B1&C1”,D1列的内容就是B、C两列的和了。选中D1单元格,用鼠标指向单元格右下角的小方块“■”,当光标变成"+"后,按住鼠标拖动光标向下拖到要合并的结尾行处,就完成了B列和C列的合并。这时先不要忙着把B列和C列删除,先要把D列的结果复制一下,再用“选择性粘贴”命令,将数据粘贴到一个空列上。这时再删掉B、C、D列的数据。

excel-concatenate-two-columns-howto

原文链接:http://wenku.baidu.com/view/bb2da363ddccda38376baf17.html

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深入解析硬盘结构

1.1 硬盘的外部结构

一般硬盘正面贴有产品标签,主要包括厂家信息和产品信息,如商标、型号、序列号、生产日期、容量、参数和主从设置方法等。这些信息是正确使用硬盘的基本依据,下面将逐步介绍它们的含义。

硬盘主要由盘体、控制电路板和接口部件等组成,如图1-1所示。盘体是一个密封的腔体。硬盘的内部结构通常是指盘体的内部结构;控制电路板上主要有硬盘BIOS、硬盘缓存(即CACHE)和主控制芯片等单元,如图1-2所示;硬盘接口包括电源插座、数据接口和主、从跳线,如图1-3所示。

harddisk_structure_indepth_01
图1-1 硬盘的外观

harddisk_structure_indepth_02
图1-2 控制电路板

harddisk_structure_indepth_03
图1-3 硬盘接口

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硬盘结构

追溯历史

从1956年9月,IBM的一个工程小组向世界展示了第一台磁盘存储系统IBM 350 RAMAC(Random Access Method of Accounting and Control)至今,磁盘存储系统已经历了近半个世纪的发展。经历了这45年,磁盘的变化可以说是非常巨大得,最早的那台RAMAC容量只有5MB,然而却需要使用50个直径为24英寸的磁盘。但现在一块容量高达100GB的硬盘只需要3张磁盘片即可。
当然,IBM 350 RAMAC与现在的硬盘有很大的差距,它只能算是硬盘的开山鼻祖。现代硬盘的真正原形,可以追溯到1973年,那时IBM公司推出的Winchester(温氏)硬盘,它的特点是:“工作时,磁头悬浮在高速转动的盘片上方,而不与盘片直接接触。使用时,磁头沿高速旋转的盘片上做径向移动”,这便是现在所有硬盘的雏形。今天高端硬盘容量虽然高达上百GB,但它却仍然没有脱离“温彻斯特”的动作模式。
下面是两张IBM公司于1980年在IBM-XT上的一块10M的硬盘图,可以看出,除了外型略大,无论外观还是内部结构和现在最先进的硬盘并无大的差别。

harddisk_structure_01

图1:IBM 10MB硬盘的内部结构图

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